International Science Index
Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation and Comparison of Flow through Mechanical Heart Valve Using Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid
The main purpose of this study is to show differences between the numerical solution of the flow through the artificial heart valve using Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. The simulation was carried out by a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package based on finite-volume method. An aortic bileaflet heart valve (Sorin Bicarbon) was used as a pattern for model of real heart valve replacement. Computed tomography (CT) was used to gain the accurate parameters of the valve. Data from CT were transferred in the commercial 3D designer, where the model for CFD was made. Carreau rheology model was applied as non-Newtonian fluid. Physiological data of cardiac cycle were used as boundary conditions. Outputs were taken the leaflets excursion from opening to closure and the fluid dynamics through the valve. This study also includes experimental measurement of pressure fields in ambience of valve for verification numerical outputs. Results put in evidence a favorable comparison between the computational solutions of flow through the mechanical heart valve using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.
Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
We present and analyze reliable numerical techniques
for simulating complex flow and transport phenomena related to
natural gas transportation in pipelines. Such kind of problems
are of high interest in the field of petroleum and environmental
engineering. Modeling and understanding natural gas flow and
transformation processes during transportation is important for the
sake of physical realism and the design and operation of pipeline
systems. In our approach a two fluid flow model based on a system
of coupled hyperbolic conservation laws is considered for describing
natural gas flow undergoing hydratization. The accurate numerical
approximation of two-phase gas flow remains subject of strong
interest in the scientific community. Such hyperbolic problems are
characterized by solutions with steep gradients or discontinuities, and
their approximation by standard finite element techniques typically
gives rise to spurious oscillations and numerical artefacts. Recently,
stabilized and discontinuous Galerkin finite element techniques
have attracted researchers’ interest. They are highly adapted to the
hyperbolic nature of our two-phase flow model. In the presentation
a streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin approach and a discontinuous
Galerkin finite element method for the numerical approximation of
our flow model of two coupled systems of Euler equations are
presented. Then the efficiency and reliability of stabilized continuous
and discontinous finite element methods for the approximation is
carefully analyzed and the potential of the either classes of numerical
schemes is investigated. In particular, standard benchmark problems
of two-phase flow like the shock tube problem are used for the
comparative numerical study.
Development and Control of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation: The Case of Colzate-Vertova Landslide, Bergamo, Northern Italy
This paper presents the Colzate-Vertova landslide, a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) located in the Seriana Valley, Northern Italy. The paper aims at describing the development as well as evaluating the factors that influence the evolution of the landslide. After defining the conceptual model of the landslide, numerical simulations were developed using a finite element numerical model, first with a two-dimensional domain, and later with a three-dimensional one. The results of the 2-D model showed a displacement field typical of a sackung, as a consequence of the erosion along the Seriana Valley. The analysis also showed that the groundwater flow could locally affect the slope stability, bringing about a reduction in the safety factor, but without reaching failure conditions. The sensitivity analysis carried out on the strength parameters pointed out that slope failures could be reached only for relevant reduction of the geotechnical characteristics. Such a result does not fit the real conditions observed on site, where a number of small failures often develop all along the hillslope. The 3-D model gave a more comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the DSGSD, also considering the border effects. The results showed that the convex profile of the slope favors the development of displacements along the lateral valley, with a relevant reduction in the safety factor, justifying the existing landslides.
Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls
The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.
Numerical Experiments for the Purpose of Studying Space-Time Evolution of Various Forms of Pulse Signals in the Collisional Cold Plasma
The influence of inhomogeneities of plasma and statistical characteristics on the propagation of signal is very actual in wireless communication systems. While propagating in the media, the deformation and evaluation of the signal in time and space take place and on the receiver we get a deformed signal. The present article is dedicated to studying the space-time evolution of rectangular, sinusoidal, exponential and bi-exponential impulses via numerical experiment in the collisional, cold plasma. The presented method is not based on the Fourier-presentation of the signal. Analytically, we have received the general image depicting the space-time evolution of the radio impulse amplitude that gives an opportunity to analyze the concrete results in the case of primary impulse.
Analysis of Translational Ship Oscillations in a Realistic Environment
To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.
Dynamic Response Analyses for Human-Induced Lateral Vibration on Congested Pedestrian Bridges
In this paper, a lateral walking design force per person is proposed and compared with Imperial College test results. Numerical simulations considering the proposed walking design force which is incorporated into the neural-oscillator model are carried out placing much emphasis on the synchronization (the lock-in phenomenon) for a pedestrian bridge model with the span length of 50 m. Numerical analyses are also conducted for an existing pedestrian suspension bridge. As compared with full scale measurements for this suspension bridge, it is confirmed that the analytical method based on the neural-oscillator model might be one of the useful ways to explain the synchronization (the lock-in phenomenon) of pedestrians being on the bridge.
Study of Landslide Behavior with Topographic Monitoring and Numerical Modeling
Landslide of Ain El Hammam (AEH) has been an old slip since 1969; it was reactivated after an intense rainfall period in 2008 where it presents a complex shape and affects broad areas. The schist of AEH is more or less altered; the alteration is facilitated by the fracturing of the rock in its upper part, the presence of flowing water as well as physical and chemical mechanisms of desegregation in joint of altered schist. The factors following these instabilities are mostly related to the geological formation, the hydro-climatic conditions and the topography of the region. The city of AEH is located on the top of a steep slope at 50 km from the city of TiziOuzou (Algeria). AEH’s topographic monitoring of unstable slope allows analyzing the structure and the different deformation mechanism and the gradual change in the geometry, the direction of change of slip. It also allows us to delimit the area affected by the movement. This work aims to study the behavior of AEH landslide with topographic monitoring and to validate the results with numerical modeling of the slip site, when the hydraulic factors are identified as the most important factors for the reactivation of this landslide. With the help of the numerical code PLAXIS 2D and PlaxFlow, the precipitations and the steady state flow are modeled. To identify the mechanism of deformation and to predict the spread of the AEH landslide numerically, we used the equivalent deviatory strain, and these results were visualized by MATLAB software.
Parametric Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Lattice Boltzmann Method
The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.
Fourier Galerkin Approach to Wave Equation with Absorbing Boundary Conditions
Numerical computation of wave propagation in a large
domain usually requires significant computational effort. Hence, the
considered domain must be truncated to a smaller domain of interest.
In addition, special boundary conditions, which absorb the outward
travelling waves, need to be implemented in order to describe the
system domains correctly. In this work, the linear one dimensional
wave equation is approximated by utilizing the Fourier Galerkin
approach. Furthermore, the artificial boundaries are realized with
absorbing boundary conditions. Within this work, a systematic work
flow for setting up the wave problem, including the absorbing
boundary conditions, is proposed. As a result, a convenient modal
system description with an effective absorbing boundary formulation
is established. Moreover, the truncated model shows high accuracy
compared to the global domain.
Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice
The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.
A Two-Phase Flow Interface Tracking Algorithm Using a Fully Coupled Pressure-Based Finite Volume Method
Two-phase and multi-phase flows are common flow types in fluid mechanics engineering. Among the basic and applied problems of these flow types, two-phase parallel flow is the one that two immiscible fluids flow in the vicinity of each other. In this type of flow, fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity, and temperature) are different at the two sides of the interface of the two fluids. The most challenging part of the numerical simulation of two-phase flow is to determine the location of interface accurately. In the present work, a coupled interface tracking algorithm is developed based on Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach using a cell-centered, pressure-based, coupled solver. To validate this algorithm, an analytical solution for fully developed two-phase flow in presence of gravity is derived, and then, the results of the numerical simulation of this flow are compared with analytical solution at various flow conditions. The results of the simulations show good accuracy of the algorithm despite using a nearly coarse and uniform grid. Temporal variations of interface profile toward the steady-state solution show that a greater difference between fluids properties (especially dynamic viscosity) will result in larger traveling waves. Gravity effect studies also show that favorable gravity will result in a reduction of heavier fluid thickness and adverse gravity leads to increasing it with respect to the zero gravity condition. However, the magnitude of variation in favorable gravity is much more than adverse gravity.
Methods for Material and Process Monitoring by Characterization of (Second and Third Order) Elastic Properties with Lamb Waves
In accordance with the industry 4.0 concept, manufacturing process steps as well as the materials themselves are going to be more and more digitalized within the next years. The “digital twin” representing the simulated and measured dataset of the (semi-finished) product can be used to control and optimize the individual processing steps and help to reduce costs and expenditure of time in product development, manufacturing, and recycling. In the present work, two material characterization methods based on Lamb waves were evaluated and compared. For demonstration purpose, both methods were shown at a standard industrial product - copper ribbons, often used in photovoltaic modules as well as in high-current microelectronic devices. By numerical approximation of the Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion model on measured phase velocities second order elastic constants (Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio) were determined. Furthermore, the effective third order elastic constants were evaluated by applying elastic, “non-destructive”, mechanical stress on the samples. In this way, small microstructural variations due to mechanical preconditioning could be detected for the first time. Both methods were compared with respect to precision and inline application capabilities. Microstructure of the samples was systematically varied by mechanical loading and annealing. Changes in the elastic ultrasound transport properties were correlated with results from microstructural analysis and mechanical testing. In summary, monitoring the elastic material properties of plate-like structures using Lamb waves is valuable for inline and non-destructive material characterization and manufacturing process control. Second order elastic constants analysis is robust over wide environmental and sample conditions, whereas the effective third order elastic constants highly increase the sensitivity with respect to small microstructural changes. Both Lamb wave based characterization methods are fitting perfectly into the industry 4.0 concept.
The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering
The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.
Basket Option Pricing under Jump Diffusion Models
Pricing financial contracts on several underlying assets
received more and more interest as a demand for complex derivatives.
The option pricing under asset price involving jump diffusion
processes leads to the partial integral differential equation (PIDEs),
which is an extension of the Black-Scholes PDE with a new integral
term. The aim of this paper is to show how basket option prices
in the jump diffusion models, mainly on the Merton model, can
be computed using RBF based approximation methods. For a test
problem, the RBF-PU method is applied for numerical solution
of partial integral differential equation arising from the two-asset
European vanilla put options. The numerical result shows the
accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.
Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Gas Releases
This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the gas turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW. A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables are taken in conformity with the local environmental conditions adopted by the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time, while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions increase with the increase of the pressure ratio.
Settlement Prediction for Tehran Subway Line-3 via FLAC3D and ANFIS
Nowadays, tunnels with different applications are developed, and most of them are related to subway tunnels. The excavation of shallow tunnels that pass under municipal utilities is very important, and the surface settlement control is an important factor in the design. The study sought to analyze the settlement and also to ﬁnd an appropriate model in order to predict the behavior of the tunnel in Tehran subway line-3. The displacement in these sections is also determined by using numerical analyses and numerical modeling. In addition, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method is utilized by Hybrid training algorithm. The database pertinent to the optimum network was obtained from 46 subway tunnels in Iran and Turkey which have been constructed by the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) with similar parameters based on type of their soil. The surface settlement was measured, and the acquired results were compared to the predicted values. The results disclosed that computing intelligence is a good substitute for numerical modeling.
Nonlinear Propagation of Acoustic Soliton Waves in Dense Quantum Electron-Positron Magnetoplasma
Propagation of nonlinear acoustic wave in dense electron-positron (e-p) plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field and stationary ions (to neutralize the plasma background) is studied. By means of the quantum hydrodynamics model and applying the reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. Using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, the compressive structure of electrostatic solitary wave and periodic travelling waves is found. The numerical results show how the ion density ratio, the ion cyclotron frequency, and the direction cosines of the wave vector affect the nonlinear electrostatic travelling waves. The obtained results may be useful to better understand the obliquely nonlinear electrostatic travelling wave of small amplitude localized structures in dense magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and may be applicable to study the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as the interior of massive white dwarfs etc.
Numerical Modeling of Various Support Systems to Stabilize Deep Excavations
Urban development requires deep excavations near buildings and other structures. Deep excavation has become more a necessity for better utilization of space as the population of the world has dramatically increased. In Lebanon, some urban areas are very crowded and lack spaces for new buildings and underground projects, which makes the usage of underground space indispensable. In this paper, a numerical modeling is performed using the finite element method to study the deep excavation-diaphragm wall soil-structure interaction in the case of nonlinear soil behavior. The study is focused on a comparison of the results obtained using different support systems. Furthermore, a parametric study is performed according to the remoteness of the structure.
Spatial Variation of WRF Model Rainfall Prediction over Uganda
Rainfall is a major climatic parameter affecting
many sectors such as health, agriculture and water resources. Its
quantitative prediction remains a challenge to weather forecasters
although numerical weather prediction models are increasingly being
used for rainfall prediction. The performance of six convective
parameterization schemes, namely the Kain-Fritsch scheme, the
Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, the Grell-Deveny scheme, the Grell-3D
scheme, the Grell-Fretas scheme, the New Tiedke scheme of the
weather research and forecast (WRF) model regarding quantitative
rainfall prediction over Uganda is investigated using the root mean
square error for the March-May (MAM) 2013 season. The MAM
2013 seasonal rainfall amount ranged from 200 mm to 900 mm over
Uganda with northern region receiving comparatively lower rainfall
amount (200–500 mm); western Uganda (270–550 mm); eastern
Uganda (400–900 mm) and the lake Victoria basin (400–650 mm). A
spatial variation in simulated rainfall amount by different convective
parameterization schemes was noted with the Kain-Fritsch scheme
over estimating the rainfall amount over northern Uganda (300–750
mm) but also presented comparable rainfall amounts over the eastern
Uganda (400–900 mm). The Betts-Miller-Janjic, the Grell-Deveny,
and the Grell-3D underestimated the rainfall amount over most
parts of the country especially the eastern region (300–600 mm).
The Grell-Fretas captured rainfall amount over the northern region
(250–450 mm) but also underestimated rainfall over the lake Victoria
Basin (150–300 mm) while the New Tiedke generally underestimated
rainfall amount over many areas of Uganda. For deterministic rainfall
prediction, the Grell-Fretas is recommended for rainfall prediction
over northern Uganda while the Kain-Fritsch scheme is recommended
over eastern region.
Thermohydraulic Performance of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber
This paper deals with the analytical investigation of thermal and thermohydraulic performance of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater has been presented, and a computer program in C++ language is developed to estimate the outlet temperature of air for the evaluation of thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency by solving the governing equations numerically using relevant correlations for heat transfer coefficients. The results obtained from the mathematical model is compared with the available experimental results and it is found to be reasonably good. The results show that the double flow solar air heaters have higher efficiency than conventional solar air heater, although the double flow corrugated absorber is superior to that of flat plate double flow solar air heater. It is also observed that the thermal efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate; however, thermohydraulic efficiency increases with increase in mass flow rate up to a certain limit, attains the maximum value, then thereafter decreases sharply.
Implication of the Exchange-Correlation on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
Using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) and by considering the role of quantum parameter (Bohm’s potential) and electron exchange-correlation potential in conjunction with Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic wave propagation in a single-walled carbon nanotubes was studied. The electronic excitations are described. By solving the mentioned equations with appropriate boundary conditions and by assuming the low-frequency electromagnetic waves, two general expressions of dispersion relations are derived for the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes, respectively. The dispersion relations are analyzed numerically and it was found that the dependency of dispersion curves with the exchange-correlation effects (which have been ignored in previous works) in the low frequency would be limited. Moreover, it has been realized that asymptotic behaviors of the TE and TM modes are similar in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The results show that by adding the function of electron exchange-correlation potential lead to the phenomena and make to extend the validity range of QHD model. The results can be important in the study of collective phenomena in nanostructures.
Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation
The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam lying on elastic foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in frequency domain, the element matrices of two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well-known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the presented finite element formulation is verified through the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Then, the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation is conducted.
Numerical Solution of Manning's Equation in Rectangular Channels
When the Manning equation is used, a unique value of normal depth in the uniform flow exists for a given channel geometry, discharge, roughness, and slope. Depending on the value of normal depth relative to the critical depth, the flow type (supercritical or subcritical) for a given characteristic of channel conditions is determined whether or not flow is uniform. There is no general solution of Manning's equation for determining the flow depth for a given flow rate, because the area of cross section and the hydraulic radius produce a complicated function of depth. The familiar solution of normal depth for a rectangular channel involves 1) a trial-and-error solution; 2) constructing a non-dimensional graph; 3) preparing tables involving non-dimensional parameters. Author in this paper has derived semi-analytical solution to Manning's equation for determining the flow depth given the flow rate in rectangular open channel. The solution was derived by expressing Manning's equation in non-dimensional form, then expanding this form using Maclaurin's series. In order to simplify the solution, terms containing power up to 4 have been considered. The resulted equation is a quartic equation with a standard form, where its solution was obtained by resolving this into two quadratic factors. The proposed solution for Manning's equation is valid over a large range of parameters, and its maximum error is within -1.586%.
Mechanical Model of Gypsum Board Anchors Subjected Cyclic Shear Loading
In this study, the mechanical model of various anchors embedded in gypsum board subjected cyclic shear loading were investigated. Shear tests for anchors embedded in 200 mm square size gypsum board were conducted to measure the load - load displacement curves. The strength of the gypsum board was changed for three conditions and 12 kinds of anchors were selected which were ordinary used for gypsum board anchoring. The loading conditions were a monotonous loading and a cyclic loading controlled by a servo-controlled hydraulic loading system to achieve accurate measurement. The fracture energy for each of the anchors was estimated by the analysis of consumed energy calculated by the load - load displacement curve. The effect of the strength of gypsum board and the types of anchors on the shear properties of gypsum board anchors was cleared. A numerical model to predict the load-unload curve of shear deformation of gypsum board anchors caused by such as the earthquake load was proposed and the validity on the model was proved.
Virtual 3D Environments for Image-Based Navigation Algorithms
This paper applies to the creation of virtual 3D environments for the study and development of mobile robot image based navigation algorithms and techniques, which need to operate robustly and efficiently. The test of these algorithms can be performed in a physical way, from conducting experiments on a prototype, or by numerical simulations. Current simulation platforms for robotic applications do not have flexible and updated models for image rendering, being unable to reproduce complex light effects and materials. Thus, it is necessary to create a test platform that integrates sophisticated simulated applications of real environments for navigation, with data and image processing. This work proposes the development of a high-level platform for building 3D model’s environments and the test of image-based navigation algorithms for mobile robots. Techniques were used for applying texture and lighting effects in order to accurately represent the generation of rendered images regarding the real world version. The application will integrate image processing scripts, trajectory control, dynamic modeling and simulation techniques for physics representation and picture rendering with the open source 3D creation suite - Blender.
Optimal Opportunistic Maintenance Policy for a Two-Unit System
This paper presents a maintenance policy for a system
consisting of two units. Unit 1 is gradually deteriorating and is
subject to soft failure. Unit 2 has a general lifetime distribution
and is subject to hard failure. Condition of unit 1 of the system
is monitored periodically and it is considered as failed when its
deterioration level reaches or exceeds a critical level N. At the
failure time of unit 2 system is considered as failed, and unit 2
will be correctively replaced by the next inspection epoch. Unit 1
or 2 are preventively replaced when deterioration level of unit 1
or age of unit 2 exceeds the related preventive maintenance (PM)
levels. At the time of corrective or preventive replacement of unit
2, there is an opportunity to replace unit 1 if its deterioration
level reaches the opportunistic maintenance (OM) level. If unit
2 fails in an inspection interval, system stops operating although
unit 1 has not failed. A mathematical model is derived to find
the preventive and opportunistic replacement levels for unit 1 and
preventive replacement age for unit 2, that minimize the long run
expected average cost per unit time. The problem is formulated and
solved in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP) framework.
Numerical example is provided to illustrate the performance of the
proposed model and the comparison of the proposed model with an
optimal policy without opportunistic maintenance level for unit 1 is
Optimal Maintenance Clustering for Rail Track Components Subject to Possession Capacity Constraints
This paper studies the optimal maintenance planning of preventive maintenance and renewal activities for components in a single railway track when the available time for maintenance is limited. The rail-track system consists of several types of components, such as rail, ballast, and switches with different preventive maintenance and renewal intervals. To perform maintenance or renewal on the track, a train free period for maintenance, called a possession, is required. Since a major possession directly affects the regular train schedule, maintenance and renewal activities are clustered as much as possible. In a highly dense and utilized railway network, the possession time on the track is critical since the demand for train operations is very high and a long possession has a severe impact on the regular train schedule. We present an optimization model and investigate the maintenance schedules with and without the possession capacity constraint. In addition, we also integrate the social-economic cost related to the effects of the maintenance time to the variable possession cost into the optimization model. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the model.
Influence of Mass Flow Rate on Forced Convective Heat Transfer through a Nanofluid Filled Direct Absorption Solar Collector
The convective and radiative heat transfer performance and entropy generation on forced convection through a direct absorption solar collector (DASC) is investigated numerically. Four different fluids, including Cu-water nanofluid, Al2O3-waternanofluid, TiO2-waternanofluid, and pure water are used as the working fluid. Entropy production has been taken into account in addition to the collector efficiency and heat transfer enhancement. Penalty finite element method with Galerkin’s weighted residual technique is used to solve the governing non-linear partial differential equations. Numerical simulations are performed for the variation of mass flow rate. The outcomes are presented in the form of isotherms, average output temperature, the average Nusselt number, collector efficiency, average entropy generation, and Bejan number. The results present that the rate of heat transfer and collector efficiency enhance significantly for raising the values of m up to a certain range.
CFD Modeling of Air Stream Pressure Drop inside Combustion Air Duct of Coal-Fired Power Plant with and without Airfoil
The flow pattern inside rectangular intake air duct of 300 MW lignite coal-fired power plant is investigated in order to analyze and reduce overall inlet system pressure drop. The system consists of the 45-degree inlet elbow, the flow instrument, the 90-degree mitered elbow and fans, respectively. The energy loss in each section can be determined by Bernoulli’s equation and ASHRAE standard table. Hence, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used in this study based on Navier-Stroke equation and the standard k-epsilon turbulence modeling. Input boundary condition is 175 kg/s mass flow rate inside the 11-m2 cross sectional duct. According to the inlet air flow rate, the Reynolds number of airstream is 2.7x106 (based on the hydraulic duct diameter), thus the flow behavior is turbulence. The numerical results are validated with the real operation data. It is found that the numerical result agrees well with the operating data, and dominant loss occurs at the flow rate measurement device. Normally, the air flow rate is measured by the airfoil and it gets high pressure drop inside the duct. To overcome this problem, the airfoil is planned to be replaced with the other type measuring instrument, such as the average pitot tube which generates low pressure drop of airstream. The numerical result in case of average pitot tube shows that the pressure drop inside the inlet airstream duct is decreased significantly. It should be noted that the energy consumption of inlet air system is reduced too.