A fast finite volume solver for multi-layered shallow
water flows with mass exchange and an erodible bed is developed.
This enables the user to solve a number of complex sediment-based
problems including (but not limited to), dam-break over an erodible
bed, recirculation currents and bed evolution as well as levy and
dyke failure. This research develops methodologies crucial to the
under-standing of multi-sediment fluvial mechanics and waterway
design. In this model mass exchange between the layers is allowed
and, in contrast to previous models, sediment and fluid are able
to transfer between layers. In the current study we use a two-step
finite volume method to avoid the solution of the Riemann problem.
Entrainment and deposition rates are calculated for the first time in
a model of this nature. In the first step the governing equations are
rewritten in a non-conservative form and the intermediate solutions
are calculated using the method of characteristics. In the second stage,
the numerical fluxes are reconstructed in conservative form and are
used to calculate a solution that satisfies the conservation property.
This method is found to be considerably faster than other comparative
finite volume methods, it also exhibits good shock capturing. For most
entrainment and deposition equations a bed level concentration factor
is used. This leads to inaccuracies in both near bed level concentration
and total scour. To account for diffusion, as no vertical velocities
are calculated, a capacity limited diffusion coefficient is used. The
additional advantage of this multilayer approach is that there is a
variation (from single layer models) in bottom layer fluid velocity:
this dramatically reduces erosion, which is often overestimated in
simulations of this nature using single layer flows. The model is
used to simulate a standard dam break. In the dam break simulation,
as expected, the number of fluid layers utilised creates variation in
the resultant bed profile, with more layers offering a higher deviation
in fluid velocity . These results showed a marked variation in erosion
profiles from standard models. The overall the model provides new
insight into the problems presented at minimal computational cost.